The history of the Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology of the SAS began in 1986 by ungrouping 7 workers from Arboretum Mlyňany SAS and their inclusion in the Institute of Experimental Genetics – the scientific and research association of the Research Institute of Animal Production and the Centre of Biological and Ecological Sciences of the SAS. Following the resolution of the Presidium SAS no. 36 from 22nd of March, 1990 the Institute of Plant Genetics of SAS was established with effect from 1st of July, 1990. Since 1998, the scientific focus of the Institute has been extended to the issue of biotechnology and gene engineering, leading to a change in the name of the institute on Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IPGB SAS) by the resolution of the Presidium SAS no. 897 from 24th February,1998 with effect from 1st April, 1998.
By fusion of the Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology of the SAS and the Botanical Institute of the SAS the Plant Science and Biodiversity Center of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (PSBC SAS) was established in 2017, following the resolution of the SAS presidium no. 1069 from 8th of September, 2016 with effect from 1st of January, 2017. The declaration by the statutory of the Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology SAS and the Botanic Institute SAS and the chairpersons of the scientific councils of both institutes preceded the institute fusion which have expressed their consent to the fusion and the establishment of a common Centre. The Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology and the Botanical Institute are the organizational units of the Plant Science and Biodiversity Center of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.
In the framework of scientific institutions, the IPGB PSBC SAS as the only one of its focus in Slovakia, occupies a specific and exceptional position, as it contributes significantly to solving the current problems of genetics and breeding of economically significant agricultural crops, as well as important species of forest and fruit trees.